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Clinical Psychology_Amy Kankiewicz

Clinical Psychology: The study, evaluation, and treatment of individuals with mental illnesses and disabilities.  (See 28:36-29:13)

In this clip, Freud states that, “Ted’s father’s own fear of failure has caused him to make his son the embodiment of all of his own deepest anxieties about himself, and hence his aggression transference onto Ted.  Freud is representing clinical psychology well.  He has studied Ted throughout the movie and is evaluating Ted’s problems with his father.  These daddy-issues have caused Ted many problems throughout his life (according to discussions in the movie), and represent a mental illness or disabling circumstance.

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Social Comparison_Amy Kankiewicz

Social Comparison:  Social comparison is judging or ranking one’s own abilities or ideas by comparing them to others. (first and second clip)

Cheryl is comparing herself to Gracie.  “You’re so nice and smart and sexy; you’re definitely gonna win,” she says to Gracie.  She does not thing herself good enough to win the Miss United States Pageant because of all the good qualities she sees in Gracie (she does not believe she, herself, has these qualities).  Also, she does not see her talent of baton twirling as anything special because she has compared it to other’s talents.  She ranks her own abilities as less than superb because she is constantly comparing them to others in the competition.

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Preoccupied Attachment_Amy Kankiewicz

Preoccupied Attachment:  (Also known as anxious-ambivalent) Relationships that are characterized by feelings of unworthiness, apprehension, jealousy, uncertainty, or possessiveness.

Glee Season 3 Episode 18:    (See Alternative18:00-19:05)

In this clip, Coach Beiste is showing preoccupied attachment.  She is married to an abusive man, but does not leave him.  As shown in the last 10-15 seconds of the clip, her reasoning for staying with this man is that she feels as if no one else will ever love her.  She feels very unworthy (she believes she is not good enough for others to like her) and apprehensive (she worries about being alone for the rest of her life).  Therefore, she stays in the relationship she is currently in.


Social-responsibility Norm_Amy Kankiewicz

Social-Responsibility Norm:  An expected norm that people will help those in need with no expectation for future reciprocation.

This article about a 9/11 firefighter is an excellent example of the social-responsibility norm.  Even though he was not supposed to come in to work that day, he rushed to work when he heard the twin towers had been hit.   He had no desire to be paid back by those he helped on that day.  He only wanted those people to be safe.

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Hostile Aggression_Amy Kankiewicz

Hostile Aggression:  Hostile aggression is physical or verbal behavior stemming from anger meant to harm another.

This scene from She’s the Man represents hostile aggression.  Not only did Olivia represent the verbal side of hostile aggression when she made fun of Monique for getting dumped in the pizza parlor, but it represents physical hostile aggression when they start fighting.  Their fighting stems from their similar feelings for Sebastian.  They desire fight with no other purpose but harming each other.

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Prejudice_Amy Kankiewicz

Prejudice:  A previous negative thought or view of a specific group or individual in such a group.

Mr. Darcy is prejudice towards Elizabeth and her family (due to their social class).  He had a negative view of the social class in which they belonged (a specific group).  This is shown through Mr. Darcy’s vocal opinions.  He even says, “Any alliance must be regarded as a highly reprehensible connection… Do you expect me to Rejoice in the inferiority of your connections?  To congratulate myself on the hope of relations whose condition in life is so decidedly below my own?”  Clearly, he views the social class of the Bennett’s, even the individual of Elizabeth, as lower than his own, and his prejudice is strong.


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Transformational Leadership_Amy Kankiewicz

Transformational Leadership:  Leadership that has a great influence on people’s actions.  This is done when one of significant status (whether in a small or large group) gives their own opinions with the intention of influencing others to take his or her own views.

One example of this is in Beauty and the Beast when Belle is trying to convince the villagers that her father is not crazy.  She takes out the magic mirror and shows them the Beast.  I could not find the conversation that occurs before the song (link posted below), so here is the dialogue:

BELLE:  Show me the beast!
(MAGIC MIRROR again shines, then produces the image of
the still depressed BEAST. The crowd oohs and aahs at it.)

WOMAN 1: Is it dangerous?

BELLE: (Trying to reassure her)
Oh, no. He’d never hurt anyone.  Please, I know he looks vicious,
but he’s really kind and gentle. He’s my friend.

GASTON: If I didn’t know better, I’d think you had feelings for this monster.

BELLE: He’s no monster, Gaston. You are!

GASTON: She’s as crazy as the old man.
(He grabs the MIRROR from her hand.)

**Start of Song:  “The Mob Song”**

The beast will make off with your children!
He’ll come after them in the night.


GASTON: We’re not safe ’til his head is mounted on my wall!
I say we kill the beast!
(MOB cheers him and repeats the words ‘kill him’.)

Song starts:

Belle is trying to tell the townsfolk that the Beast is not dangerous, she has no status or leadership.  When Gaston begins to speak of how terrible and fearsome the Beast is, because of his significant status in his community, the townsfolk believe him and begin to have similar opinions.  They, too, desire to kill the Beast.

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Coning_Amy Kankiewicz

Coning: The norm that I focused on was food handling, in this instance, handling an ice cream cone.  When one purchases an ice cream cone, the social norm is to take the ice cream cone from the cone end.  In order to violate this social norm, when handed the ice cream cone, I grabbed the ice cream part of the cone.  The following two pictures are some examples of coning.×230.png

The reaction of the ice cream server was hilarious!  His eyes instantly widened, and he said, “Oh my gosh!!!”  He backed away from the counter, as if to get far away from me.  As I walked away with the ice cream in my hand, the other worker there turned to the guy that had handed me the ice cream and said, “Did she really just do that?!”

Throughout the social norm experiment, I felt pretty silly.  I felt a little anxious as the guy server was scooping out the ice cream, knowing what I was about to do.  When I actually did it, I felt pretty good about myself.  I was with three other friends, and they were all shocked that I actually did it.  The entire time I was walking away from the ice cream counter, I had a satisfied smile on my face.  It was very fun, in my opinion, and I might just do it again sometime just to see the shocked reactions again.


Shikaka!_Reactance_Amy Kankiewicz

Reactance: The urge or impulse to maintain and/or restore one’s feeling of freedom. (See 1:43-2:25)

This clip from Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls represents reactance.  Ace Ventura was told not to step on the altar for the Shikaka.  This rule was taking away some of Ace Ventura’s freedom.  In order to keep some of his feeling of freedom, Ace Ventura impulsively stepped on the altar when the chief was not looking.  By defying the chief and showing his freedom, Ace Ventura showed the principle of reactance.

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Boys Will Be Girls_Gender Role_Amy Kankiewicz

Gender Role: A gender role is a set method of behaving based on biological orientation of sex.  These roles are believed to be dichotomous—that is, they are believed to be opposites that should not be mixed (males should show male gender roles and females should show female gender roles).

This shows gender roles in a different light.  These men are showing female gender roles.  For example, women are more willing to share than men, as shown when the men asked who wanted to share a bite to eat.  Women are stereotyped as more emotional.  The Harvard Sailing Team did this by having one of the men on the phone with his girlfriend telling her to, “Say ‘I love you’ to me.”  They portrayed how women are more social and conversational, through their many discussions throughout the clip.  Also, they portrayed the fact that women are worried more about their weight than men are through the use of the phrase, “My diet starts tomorrow…OUR DIET STARTS TOMORROW!”  All of these things portrayed gender roles, or set methods of behavior, that are more geared toward women.

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Amy Kankiewicz_Recency Effect

Recency Effect: The recency effect occurs when information presented toward the end of a list is remembered more than information presented toward the beginning or middle of the list, resulting in the latter information to have a greater effect on the observer.

I have a friend that presents this effect perfectly.  I often text him with multiple questions per text, however, he almost always responds only to the last question I asked. The following is one such instance:

Him: I am not excited for finals.  The only good part is that I get a break after.

Me: When are your finals?  Also, what do you plan to do with your break?

Him: I don’t have any definite plans yet.  I will probably have to get a job or something.

Me: …You did not answer my first question.

Him: What was your question?

Me: When are your finals?…

This is an example of the recency effect because he only remembered the information at the end (only the second question).  The information presented at the beginning of the list did not have a great effect on him, and so he forgot to respond to the first question of when his finals were.

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Amy Kankiewicz_False Consensus

False Consensus: False consensus is the belief that one’s opinions, beliefs, and behaviors are more common than they actually are.

One of my friends named Jackie goes to the University of Arizona.  She is not LDS, but follows many of the lifestyle decisions that are suggested in the word of wisdom, specifically refraining from sexual relations until marriage.  She, being a freshman, had an unfamiliar roommate her first semester of college.  As time went on, her roommate found out about Jackie’s refrain from such conduct and thought her odd, so much so that she spoke of such refrain to her friends and even her parents.  Jackie believed this shock very odd.  She thought it was only natural to refrain from sexual relations until marriage, but it was thought uncommon from her roommate.

This is an example of false consensus.  Everyone that Jackie’s roommate spoke to about her situation were shocked by such conduct, yet Jackie did not understand why.  She believed that her refrain of sexual relations were much more common than others at her college.  Jackie overestimated the commonality of refrain from sexual relations before marriage at the University of Arizona.

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Self-Efficacy_Amy Kankiewicz

Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy is the act of believing you can accomplish a task.  It is the combination of confidence (“I can do this”) and control (“I can effect the outcome”).

In high school, I tried out for All-State Show Choir.  In order to try out, you needed to sing a major scale and a chromatic scale.  You also were taught a 2-3 minute dance routine in 20 minutes and were expected to perform it for a panel of judges.  I knew what to expect and had practiced for the tryouts for weeks and weeks.  I could not see any way I could be more prepared for tryouts.  When tryouts came around, I believed in myself and performed to the best of my abilities, and succeeded.  I was chosen to participate in All-State Show Choir.

This is an example of self-efficacy.  I felt confident that I would be able to make it in (I believed that I could accomplish the task).  Not only was I confident in myself, but I also felt like I had control over the task.  I had practiced a great deal in order to get the scales correct.  Also, our choir had done workshops to prepare us for the performance portion of the tryout—we were taught short routines to various songs in the appropriate time (20 minutes each) and performed it in front of our fellow choir members.  This all allowed me to feel as if I could effect the results because I knew what to expect, which was more than many first-timers could say.  Therefore, because I was confident and felt in control, this is an example of self-efficacy.

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Amy Kankiewicz_Experimental Realism

Experimental Realism:  Experimental realism is the extent to which a participant is engrossed in a study.  This is desirable in experimental research in order to keep results uninfluenced by participant bias and, through that, increase validity.  Some ways of doing this are through deception or by reflecting the hard demands of every-day life.  (See 0:00-1:26) (See 0:00-0:28 and 1:38-2:10)

This is an example of experimental realism through deception.  The experimenters told participants that they were studying memory when they were really studying obedience to authority (they were deceived).  The participants were absorbed in their role as teacher, or shock applier, for they kept applying shocks to the “learner” even when it was believed to be a lethal shock (engrossed in the study).  At the end of the experiment, it is clear that the participants were engrossed in the study, that they truly believed what was happening and went along shocking the “learner” (resulting in minimal participant bias).

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