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Misinformation Effect by Catherine Dodart

The Misinformation Effect is when someone feels they recall an image they didn’t really see in the beginning.

The Misinformation Effect is one that can definitely cause problems. For example, if in court a witness believes they saw something they didn’t, or if the person had a mustache when they really didn’t then it could put someone under the radar that didn’t really do anything wrong. This is why its important and more credible if there are multiple eye witnesses because then stories of what one saw can be compared.

An example in my life is one in which I was involved in a fender bender with my car and another. After the incident happened I felt that i was recalling things that may or may not have really happened but in my mind it seemed like it really did.

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Personal Space by Catherine Dodart

Personal Space is the area around us that we like to keep between ourselves and others.

Many people begin to feel extremely uncomfortable if they feel others begin to invade this personal space. There is a social norm that many Americans will stick to themselves and try not to breach this area of personal space, unless extremely familiar with the person. We keep space on buses, at restaurants, at parks, and even movies. Some distance can also vary, for example adults favor personal space much more than children would. Men also keep more distance from each other than women do and in some cultures personal space doesn’t really apply. People will hug and even kiss some people they don’t know. I have tried sitting near someone I don’t know before and watching them start to be uncomfortable and wonder what I’m doing begins to make me feel awkward and unsure.

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Counterfactual Thinking by Catherine Dodart

Counterfactual Thinking: is when you imagine different outcomes or endings that might have happened.

I feel that I have experienced this many times. For example, if I do poorly on a test my mind instantly goes back to some of those questions that I was unsure on and I think, “Well maybe if I would have put the other answer down I would have scored better.” Sometimes I will catch myself continually looking back at things like how could I have handled that differently, what if I would have chosen to go this way, or maybe I would have liked that other job. I never knew that there was an actual name to this type of thinking.

The text uses an example of Olympic athletes and how one who receives a bronze medal may be more positive if in his mind he had pictured leaving without a medal, as opposed to someone who won a silver medal and pictured themselves winning a gold medal.


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Culture by Catherine Dodart

I would define culture as the beliefs, behaviors, and traditions set up by a certain group and shared from each generation.

Everyone comes from a different background and culture whether its a family culture, or culture based on where your from. I think when we are given the chance to experience someone elses culture we begin to be able to understand them on a better level. I once heard a quote that was something like, “You don’t know where someone is going, until you know where they’ve been.” I think this is a good example of why its important to understand somebody on a cultural level.

I was lucky enough to be able to attend BYU Hawaii for 6 months and the culture of it all was extremely different. I was attending school with people not only from America, but all over Europe, Asia, and some pacific islands. While there I lived in a dorm with a girl from Tonga and I was able to learn more about her culture, which was very different from my own. in our dorm we had a phone and this phone would ring at all hours of the night…While your trying to sleep this gets a little frustrating because not only would she answer it, but she would have a full on conversation at 4 in the morning sometimes. At first I let this go on for awhile because I didn’t want to seem rude, but after some time I finally mentioned to some other friends that my roommate talks and talks on the phone during the night. One of my good friends had taken a Tongan speaking class and in it she learned that not only was it rude to not answer your phone but it was very impolite if you did not have at least part of a conversation with the person who answered. I then began to understand that my roommate and I came from very different cultures and I would need to learn to just go with the flow. At one point tho when she was asleep I would unplug the phone line…needless to say I started sleeping better!

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Planning Fallacy By Catherine Dodart

The planning fallacy is when we don’t calculate the amount of time it will take us to complete a task correctly.

I definitely have experienced this many, many, times. Sometimes I think that my ability on a certain task is so great that I will be able to do something in about an hours time. This has come to bite me in the butt on certain occasions. I know now that I always kind of need to give myself a little more time just in case something else becomes distracting or I get caught up in something. For example when it comes to homework, I often will procrastinate because I know that I can get it done and I don’t think it will take me very long to accomplish. However, I have found that even though I know what I am doing on the assignment, to make it presentable I end up taking more time than I originally had planned.

Everybody experiences this and sometimes it can even be on a daily basis, or else that’s just my bad planning habits:)


Social Norm Violation By Catherine Dodart

I currently work at a call center and am constantly surrounded by people I don’t know. I decided that this would be a perfect opportunity to go against the social norm. Everyday you sit in a different cubicle and talk on the phones while in between calls you can talk to friends or those you sit by. While sitting down one day I decided that I would wait for two people to begin to have a conversation and then I would just instantly jump in like I had been part of it. Nobody likes to be interrupted but I figured it would be even better if it were people I didn’t know that I was trying to strike up a conversation with. It didn’t take long for a guy and a girl near me to strike up a conversation. I waited until they were talking about something serious and then I put in my two cents, like I had known what they were talking about. At first they kind of let it go and just gave me a strange look like, “Who asked for your opinion?” After a few times of chiming in they finally started to kind of tune me out and eventually kept their talking to a minimum. At first it was hard not to laugh and explain what I was doing but I did start to feel extremely uncomfortable when I knew that they were getting irritated with me, Goes to show that social norms do exist and it can be extremely awkward when you break them!


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Social Comparisons by Catherine Dodart

Downward Social Comparison: is a defense strategy that some people use as a way to show self-evaluation. They will look to others or a group who may be worse off in order to dissociate themselves from similarities which end up making them feel better.  The media has oftentimes been found to play a large role in social comparisons.

Studies have shown that in most cases women tend to engage in upward social comparisons with another, which results in more negative feelings about the self. Upward Comparison: is when someone wants others to believe themselves to be part of the elite or superior. The majority of women have a daily opportunity to make upward comparison by measuring themselves against some form of  ideal. Women have reported making upward comparisons in a positive manner for the purposes of self motivation, but the majority of upward comparisons are made when the individual is feeling lesser and therefore evoke a negative display.

There may be times when we know someone like this or have experienced this situation. In the clip below, Penelope tries to outdo anything and everything someone says. She is showing that she wants to be seen as superior to the others in the group.


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Fearful attachment by Catherine Dodart

Fearful Attachment: is when people are afraid to become involved in a relationship due to a fear of rejection.

This is something that I feel many of us experience at one point or another, or maybe even many times while we are in the dating scene. Dating can be scary! Nobody on either end wants to get hurt and sometimes the fear of being hurt keeps us from embarking on relationships that could turn out to be amazing experiences.

I recently saw the movie Act Like A Lady, Think Like A Man, and in the movie the women become sick of being in relationships that don’t end up ending happily ever after. A writer, Steve Harvey, comes out with a book that is supposed to give women all the ins and outs to understanding men and thinking on their level. Each girl purchases the book and ends up meeting someone she wants to date. Each of these men struggle in one area or another and at some point in the movie each one is an example of fearful attachment, whether its the girl in the couple or the boy.

In conclusion, fearful attachment isn’t something that happens to only men or women but is something that can be worked on. Relationships are always tricky but the best thing to do is just have fun and go with it!

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Altruism by Catherine Dodart

Altruism: is being selfless by helping or providing aid to others while expecting to get nothing in return.

When I think of altruism one of the first things that comes to mind is service. As a little girl growing up in my family providing service for others was always something my parents hit hard on. My mom, being a big scouter, taught us the value of “doing a good turn daily.” As a family we set a goal to do at least one good turn a day and come the next monday for FHE we would all report what our good deed was or if there were multiple we would pick a couple and explain how they made us feel or what we learned. At the beginning this kind of just seemed like a competition I had with my siblings to see who could provide the most service, but as I got older I eventually began to understand the value of what my parents were trying to teach us. It is so easy to do at least one good thing for someone else everyday and being able to recognize others needs was extremely insightful in many ways.

Another example I thought of were those who begin non-profit organizations. These are people who found a social need and created a solution to someones problem. They give up time, money, and effort doing something that benefits others as opposed to working on something that is beneficial to them. I have always been impressed with peoples ideas on how to help others and hope that someday I will be able to start my own.

In conclusion, being someone who is altruistic is becoming selfless and looking to serve those who may be in need of help.

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The Effect Of Video Games On Aggression Catherine Dodart

A popular debate today is on whether or not video games can enhance aggression in teens. Aggression is any type of physical or verbal behavior that has the motive to hurt someone. Many teens today and even some adults don’t believe that video games can affect our mood or aggression levels. The text states that studies have shown that violent video games have five common effects on people.

1- It can increase arousal. 2- Increases aggressive thinking. 3-Increases aggressive feelings. 4- Increases aggressive  behaviors.5- Decreases pro-social behaviors.

Growing up we were not allowed to play violent video games, however my older brother once got his hands on the James Bond 007 game. My little brother and I would watch him for hours and I didn’t notice any direct changes right away. However, after some time playing the game on its mission mode he would become easily aggravated and defensive over anything. After playing for hours his face would be bright red and he would just look like he had run a marathon. After my mom began to notice some changes in his mood she found the game and took it away.

We may not always believe that video games can cause an increase of aggression and some may claim that it helps relieve stress or tension. However, there have been studies that show that when children play violent video games as opposed to a regular game they begin using their emotional side of the brain as opposed to the side that uses rational thinking and concentration. Concerns were greatly expressed about violent video games after the Columbine High School Massacre. Both of the boys that were involved in the shooting were heavily immersed in games called, Doom and Wolfenstein. Some analysts argued that part of the killers’ problem may have been desensitization due to their constant exposure to violent imagery in such video games, as well as other media.

In conclusion, violent games can have an affect on someones level of aggression. Some states are still fighting today to have video games banned because they believe it can have a strong, negative impact on someone of a young age and even adults.


Sexism by Catherine Dodart

Sexism: stereotyping, discriminating, or being prejudice against the opposite sex, in most cases being women.  Over time, sexism is something that has become increasingly better. In the old days women were not allowed to speak their mind, have careers, or in some cases leave their home. Today however women have much more opportunity. They can go to college and get a career, own their own company, run for president, etc. Although women have been able to do more sexism still exists. I have often heard, “Your probably a bad driver because your a girl,” or “That must be easier for you because your a girl, you can get whatever you want.” This is a form of sexism. Women work just as hard as men, if not on occasion more. An example of sexism that I found was the clip from, She’s The Man, where Amanda Bynes pretends to be a boy just to continue her love for soccer because the boys won’t let her play on their team.




In conclusion, sexism still exists today not only towards women. There are times when boys have been stereotyped as well with things like being emotionless, or not being able to care about others and have feelings. The text says, “Sexism is an institutional practice that discriminates, even if there is no prejudicial intent.” This means that sometimes even when we think we aren’t being sexist we may actually be offending someone. Both genders struggle with being sexist and its something that will probably always exist.

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Social Leadership by Catherine Dodart

Social Leadership: is having the ability to support, coach, and motivate others. Social leadership can take on many forms such as having the ability to unite a team, lead by example, and help mediate conflicts when they arise. It’s caring about others needs before your own and looking for the common interest of a group to help lead to success.

An example I found of this was on Remember The Titans where Gary and Julius both show leadership to unite the team.

We all have someone that we know who has been an example of social leadership whether that was a captain on an athletics team, a leader in the church, or even some of our close friends and family members. One of my cheer squad captains was a great example of this type of leadership. She was motivating, supportive, and looked out for the teams best interest. She would place others needs before her own and provide the safety necessary for those who would be stunting. Being a social leader is making sure that everyone’s voice in the group can be heard and they want the well being of their teammates. In conclusion, social leadership can build morale, strengthen us as individuals, and bring people together.

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Conforming To Social Pressures by Catherine Dodart

Oftentimes we may be placed in situations where we find ourselves acting or responding differently than we normally would have. We let social influences change the way we may think or act because of pressure. This is known as Conformity. One way or another we all conform. Whether that’s agreeing with someone on an issue you might have disagreed on, worn a certain brand because everybody else has it, or participated in an event you otherwise wouldn’t have if there wasn’t any social influence.

In this clip Robin Williams gives a good example of conforming with one of his classes.

An example that I had with conforming was one that involved a movie a group of friends and I saw. At the end of the movie we all talked about whether or not we had enjoyed the movie and what we liked. There was a girl there that we knew wasn’t particularly fond of the movie but because the rest of us said that we liked it, she changed her answer and claimed that she had liked the movie as well.

In conclusion, conforming can be contagious! We have all been guilty of this at one time or another.  How do we avoid giving in to social pressures and being able to stand alone when others opinions differ from our own? Only time will tell if we one day will be comfortable and confident enough to avoid the influences and opinions of others.

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Persuasion: Attractiveness and Liking by Catherine Dodart

Attractiveness: A quality or characteristic that causes an interest in something or someone.

Whether we notice it or not, attraction and similarity play a big role on our everyday life. Often times we may see or meet somebody that seems to have similar qualities or beliefs that we have, creating a certain level of attraction. When it comes to advertisements many companies will often choose to use a celebrity, a star athlete, or even certain entertainers to catch our attention and make it seem like the product is better than it really is. This type of persuasion is one that works extremely well.

In conclusion, we may or may not be persuaded to purchase a brand or product based on the attractiveness or similarities we feel we might have to an actor in a commercial or to the item they are selling. Using humor, a celebrity, someone physically attractive, etc. may increase the odds of us actually purchasing a product being sold. This form of persuasion tries to trigger positive associations when we see the product later in stores. When we like something or are attracted to it, we may become more open or easily persuaded to whatever is being sold.

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