Archive for category Blog Entry 13
One thing that caught my eye in the book was what I read about loneliness and gender. For men to feel lonely, they have been isolated from group interactions. For women to feel lonely, they lack one-on-one time with someone they feel close to. This is something I think is SO true.
My husband and I are very different, and we both get our emotional “fill” in different ways. In order to not feel lonely, I need to have good conversations and quality time with people I have strong relationships with. For Collin to not feel lonely, he just needs to be next to someone… even if they’re not really doing anything with each other.
If we are both in the living room but I’m typing something up on the computer and he is playing a game on his phone, that’s good enough for him to feel like he is included. For me… I need us to actually have a conversation with each other. Even if I am with a group of people, if I’m not interacting I can still feel lonely.
It never ceases to amaze me how much genders differ with so many thing, loneliness being another one I can add to the list.
The Misinformation effect – Incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it.
Some of us may recall an event and tell the story of what happened believing that everything we “remember” actually happened. Memory can be misleading and manipulated.
In this video, the male telling the story of when he was lost as a child appears to be a true memory. He believes that this event really occurred. He even created specifics in his memory like the flannel shirt.
This can be interesting in a court room because a lot of what the jury can go by is “eye witnesses.” After many studies, we understand that an eye witness may not be as accurate and reliable as we originally thought. When someone wants to believe something so badly that person can create memories of an event that never happened or alter the true memory to match the desired memory.
Minority influence refers to the impact that a relatively small group of people has on a larger group in making a decision of some sort. Phrases such as, “majority rules,” or “join the crowd” lose their appeal and validity when the minority sticks together and adamantly endures peddling on an uphill course in fighting the majority influence. The minority, whether consisting of a group of 100 people or a single individual, is most likely to gain power over the majority when it remains consistent, persistent, and self-confident.
In the movie, You’ve Got Mail, a counter example of the success of minority influence is shown in the conflict between two bookstores. One of the bookstores – The Shop Around the Corner – is a small, family-run business while the other – Fox Books – is a new enterprise run by wealthy businessmen. The dilemma is that the very presence of Fox Books – ironically just around the corner from The Shop Around the Corner – threatens the business and customer retention of the smaller store. To combat this threat, The Shop Around the Corner gathers followers together in rallies and organizes strike marches around Fox Books, all the while consistently and persistently fighting and even believing in their ability to succeed. The Shop Around the Corner, however, fails to keep their company going and eventually gets run out of business. Given their consistency, persistency, and self-confidence, why did they not succeed? My simple observation of the matter tells me that they were lacking one vital feature – money.
Therefore, although minority groups can exert their influence over the majority’s with sufficient stamina and conviction, in the business arena, an extra characteristic is needed. Not only need the minority possess consistency, persistency in effort, and self-confidence, but also the adequate cash flow. In other words, moola!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVlaur-kEds&feature=related 0:00 – 1:35 (You’ve Got Mail)
This is the best clip I could find, sorry.
Adaption -level phenomenon: this is the tendency to judge our experiences by comparing them to past experiences. For example, the book explains that as our income rises, or our social prestige improves we feel pleasure. But as time goes on, we adapt. What once felt good now feels just normal- and what was normal or neutral before now feels like deprivation. This phenomenon also entails our ability to judge our adaptive capacity. Often we underestimate our adaptive capacity. We have a hard time predicting the intensity and duration of our future positive and negative emotions.
In the movie Home Alone, Kevin (the main character) is at first very happy when he finds himself at home alone- with the house to himself. But as time goes on- the excitement lessens- and he finds himself missing his family.
In this movie Kevin thought he would be super happy being home alone- without his annoying family around. When Kevin is alone, the excitement of being home alone evaporates more rapidly than he had expected. In this situation- Kevin underestimated his adaptive capacity.
“1st Birthday- Real or Imagined?” by Tatiana Herman
The Retelling of events has to do with people repeating a story to themselves and solidifying that story in their mind. If the story is accurate, the retelling makes the narrator resistant to future misleading suggestions. However, if the story has some incorrect aspect, then the inaccurate version will eventually become truth.
About a year ago, my extended family was gathered together and exchanging stories. I decided to chime in with my earliest memory. I described my first birthday party. My mother and father were there along with my mother’s side of the family. What I remember is sitting in my high chair as my mother carried in my vanilla birthday cake singing to me with everyone else surrounding me. I remember a kitchen with dark wood paneling and dim lighting to enhance the glow from the single birthday candle.
My mother was kind enough to let me finish, but as soon as I had, she couldn’t help giggling as she corrected me on my version of the story. I had told this story to friends in the past and with each telling solidified not only the details, but even the mental images in my mind. I was so convinced that I had it right that it took me a while to admit to myself she would have the more accurate memory at 27 years old as opposed to my one year of age.
Retelling is when someone recounts an experience that happened to them or they have witnessed. It was noticed that when individuals retell a personal experience, they often fabricate or exaggerate, and as they retell it these fabrications are accepted by the individual as truths. Thus, as the story is recounted again and again it becomes more exaggerated, and these exaggerations seem more and more reasonable.
Another phenomenon of re-telling is that the ‘teller’ will often bias their story to sound more favorable depending on who they are addressing. This behavior is seen in the BYU Animation short film Pajama Gladiator. When he is caught trying to steal cookies from on top of the fridge, he begins to recount the situation to his mom. Because he knows his mother will be angry if she discovers he was trying to sneak cookies, he decides to bias his retelling, making up an elaborate story about alien abductions. As he continues with the story, he becomes more and more convinced of its authenticity. These are classic symptoms of retelling.
Retelling is when people recount events according to their own recollections. Because we usually change what we say to please those around us, we often embellish and exaggerate the facts of what really happened.
A good example of this is in the sixth Harry Potter book. Ron gets poisoned accidentally and spends a few days recovering in the hospital. For a few weeks afterward, every time Ron recounted the events, he embellished his story to make him sound more of a hero than a helpless victim. In fact, now that I think about it, Ron embellishes events a lot. One of my favorite lines from Ron is at the end of the seventh book when he tells his son that everyone in the train station is staring because he is so famous, when really they are all staring at Harry.
A good accurate retelling of events can defend us against misleading information, but more often than not, we embellish the events the more we tell a story to make us sound better, much like Ron does in Harry Potter.
As outlined in chapter 15, social psychology has no limits – especially not the courtroom. While one would expect everything within the hallowed halls of the legal kingdom to be precisely fair, that simply isn’t the case. We can make choices based on the influence of any of the individuals in the room, and essentially ignore everything we will be told by either side, blinded by any sort of variables. The chapter details how jury selection is particularly important, and most juries are formed with great consideration to any bias by potential jurors. The selection process can get very gritty, and any sort of individual predilection or prejudice can disqualify someone from serving on a jury. However, some people don’t like serving jury duty, and abuse these regulations in an attempt to get out of it – doing anything from faking strange behavior to developing sudden preferences that would inherently prefer either side, without regard to any testimony.
People like Liz Lemon, for instance:
In the above clip, Liz brings out the oddities to get off of jury duty so she can return to work. She acts like a huge Star Wars fan, talking about her planet and how she can’t serve because she’s “actually a hologram”. She was faking some sort of delusion to seem mentally unstable and therefore unfit for jury duty, as if her strange personality would have been unable to clearly decide on a verdict.
Retelling is when someone recounts a story, but change the facts of it, often through exaggeration.
example: I couldn’t find a clip of it, but in the movie Holes, Stanley writes home telling his mom how wonderful camp green lake is and how much he is loving it, when in reality it is nothing like what he describes.
conclusion: As Stanley changes his story about the events at camp green lake in his letter, he is displaying retelling.
The misinformation effect is when a memory becomes skewed after hearing false information about the event.
An example of this when my high school cooking teacher told the class that she watched a history channel show on Italy and how they said that Italy’s circumference was only 30 miles. She exclaimed “That’s how small Italy is! That’s from here (Carson City) to Reno! That’s the whole circumference!!”
Apart from purely being an idiot, I believe my teacher was a victim of the misinformation effect. I believe that someone, probably her husband, told her that Italy had a circumference. He then told her that the circumference was only 30 miles. Later, when Italy came up, she remembered that the man on the show told her this false information. Poor lady.
The Misinformation Effect is when someone feels they recall an image they didn’t really see in the beginning.
The Misinformation Effect is one that can definitely cause problems. For example, if in court a witness believes they saw something they didn’t, or if the person had a mustache when they really didn’t then it could put someone under the radar that didn’t really do anything wrong. This is why its important and more credible if there are multiple eye witnesses because then stories of what one saw can be compared.
An example in my life is one in which I was involved in a fender bender with my car and another. After the incident happened I felt that i was recalling things that may or may not have really happened but in my mind it seemed like it really did.
The misinformation effect is when misleading information changes your recollection of a certain event.
About a month ago I was talking with a friend about life from high school. He starting telling a story about something that had occurred while I was away on vacation…but he told the story having added me into it. I started asking him why he thought it was me who had said certain things in his retelling of this story, or why he even thought I was there, because I was sure I was not.
Eventually as I was talking to another friend who had been at this event, I realized that he had rehearsed this version of the event (where I am present) with my other friend. He was able to remember that indeed, I had been on vacation and could not have taken part in this event, but my original friend could not shake the notion that I had been there. The mistelling of this story over years had caused the event to change in my friend’s mind, and he was sure that that was how it had always been. Misinformation.
It is difficult to have a completely unbiased jury. The text mentions a few things that influence the jury’s final judgement. One of these things is how similar the defendant is to the jury.
I recently had the experience of being part of a mock trial for one of my other classes. A few of my other class mates and I made up the jury. When the defendant stood up to tell his story I realized that it was one of my coworkers Tom. Tom and I got along well and had a lot in common. I listened to his character’s story and realized that i would have acted in a similar way. So I had a lot in common with both the character being played and the actor playing the character. It’s no surprise then that I voted in favor of the defendant.
Even though this was a mock trial, it still shows how the similarities between a defendant and a jury can bias the jury’s final judgement.
Retelling is when one attempts to recall events for other listeners, possibly exaggerating certain points of the story or creating falsehoods either consciously or accidentally. It often occurs when witnesses to a crime are asked to recall what/who they saw. Sometimes the witness may recall that the criminal was wearing a black suit and tie, when in reality he was wearing a black t-shirt. This can be very misleading in court cases especially if there is a lack of physical evidence.
My example of retelling is found in the movie Sasquatch Gang. This clip shows one of the main characters, Hobie, retelling the events of the week to his diary.
Although you may not realize how much Hobie exaggerated the events he described because I could not find a clip that showed the actual events, he is retelling how events played out in his mind. In real life, his friends did not refer to his weight or say “fat people suck,” but it appears that he is very sensitive about his weight because that is what he remembers them saying. Therefore, Hobie records what he remembers from the events in his diary, even though they are inaccurate.
When someone retells a story they change it around and it is often exaggerated or twisted. It often also depends on who they are telling it to.
I find that when I am trying to hook two friends up that I find myself only repeating the good things that the other person says. I might retell what they say so that it will appear to the person’s benefit. This is retelling.
Clinical Psychology: The study, evaluation, and treatment of individuals with mental illnesses and disabilities.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWg0tG_9uog (See 28:36-29:13)
In this clip, Freud states that, “Ted’s father’s own fear of failure has caused him to make his son the embodiment of all of his own deepest anxieties about himself, and hence his aggression transference onto Ted. Freud is representing clinical psychology well. He has studied Ted throughout the movie and is evaluating Ted’s problems with his father. These daddy-issues have caused Ted many problems throughout his life (according to discussions in the movie), and represent a mental illness or disabling circumstance.
Social comparison is the tendency to judge your own worth (or opinions, style, etc.) based on your comparison of others.
WATCH only 3:20-4:30
In this clip and throughout this episode, Lizzie says that she can be “best dressed” if she dresses better than the popular girls Kate and Claire. She obviously judges herself and how she looks based on the competition she has from other girls. If she buys more expensive clothes than them, she will be best dressed. Lizzie uses social comparison to determine how well dressed she is.
Social Comparison is defined as one’s evaluation of their own ideas and abilities by comparing themselves to others.
In yesterday’s Deseret Newspaper as article entitled “College Students’ financial fantasies meet reality.” This article explores the fear college grads are facing when they graduate. They fear they won’t be able to find a job and if they do, they won’t be able to find a good paying job. The following figure, which was published with the article, shows that college grads on average say they’ll need 81,600 dollars in order to feel secure, which is much higher than what an actual college graduate makes, which on average is 21,900 dollars. The article speculates that college graduates are comparing their lifestyles to their parents and are disregarding the work that goes into it.
This illustrates the social comparison theory because college graduates are overestimating how much money they’ll need to feel secure because they are comparing their lifestyles to their parents and other successful adults around them. By doing this they are underestimating the work it takes to get to such a comfortable financial position. By comparing themselves to their parents they are not able to assess their financial situation accurately.
Memories are interesting in that they can so easily be warped. One piece of information, accurate or not, can alter one’s memory forever. This is known as the misinformation effect, which states that misinformation is incorporated into a memory.
My grandpa is a rather hilarious elderly man. The memories he has, whether they were in his childhood or two days ago, can be altered so easily. Although it may be unethical, my roommates and I often have fun with this realization at dinner on Sunday evenings. This past Sunday, my grandfather told a story regarding his time as a car salesman. I remember him selling cars, so it was not unreasonable for me to place my own memory in his. However, the memory I mentioned was nonexistent. As he talked about how he sold his first hybrid, I mentioned that I was there bringing him lunch as the buyer was filling out paperwork. Grandpa continued on with his story, failing to acknowledge my comment. Once he finished his story however, he said, “Oh yes! I remember now! Then Jennae brought me my favorite Subway sandwich!”
My grandpa is affected by the misinformation effect on close to a daily basis. This particular example displays the effect because I was rarely at his work, and I most certainly do not remember being there the moment he sold his first hybrid. Furthermore, I never took him a subway sandwich. Ever. My misleading him with my own false memory subjected him to the misinformation effect as he implemented my memory into his own memory, which is now forever altered.
The adaptation-level phenomenon is our ability to judge a situation based on our previous experiences with it. We then adapt to this new situation or level, using our previous experiences as a guide. Once we have reached this new level, we adapt to it and it becomes part of our normal routine. Our previous level seems to not measure up anymore. The happiness received from the previous success doesn’t last.
Despicable me illustrates this example in a silly way. It shows Gru, who is not satisfied with the small things he has adapted to stealing. He wants more. I couldn’t find the clip in youtube, but basically it shows him identifying all the objects they have stolen over the past year. They have adapted each time to a higher level of theft. His big new plan is to steal the moon! Gru has become greedy, wanting to outdo those around him, as well as reach the next highest level.
I think this can be applied to greed. I think humans become greedy through this adaptation level phenomenon. Once we have adjusted to a higher level of living, we cannot bear to think of going back to where we once were. In addition, I think it causes to want to continue to adapt and move up to a new level. In applying this to society today, we can see this happening everywhere, and in all aspects of life. It happens with power, with money, with material things. I think it even can happen in dating and relationships.
Functional social support is made up of the type of support received, which includes informational support, emotional support, tangible support, and belonging support.
When I get stressed I become more emotional. Sometimes I even become a little irrational and will become easily upset at little things. Many times I have come to someone for support, generally my parents, expecting to receive emotional support that will help me overcome my problems and my stress or anger. Several times I have received informational support rather than the emotional support I desire. This only aggravates my stress. One particular example was when I gave personal information to my parents, which was a source of emotional distress, and instead of giving emotional support I was given informational support. Because I was emotional, this was harsher than I anticipated and I became angry and hurt.
The type of support given is very important for different situations. It is very important to have social support. The different kinds of functional support are equally important, but need to be used in the appropriate situations. Informational support, emotional support, tangible support, and belonging support are all important for different situations and for different people.
Social Comparison is the evaluation of one’s abilities in comparison with those of others’.
Social comparison is something that we do on a daily basis. One example in my life is how intelligent I feel in comparison with others. When I am with my friends they often comment on how smart I am, and it makes me feel smart. When I am with my younger sister who is considered a genius, I feel very unintelligent. Compared to her I often feel stupid and out of my depth.
This is an example of social comparison because how I evaluate my intelligence in comparison with others’, and that evaluation changes based on whom I am comparing myself to.
The misinformation effect refers the effect that false information has on recalling a memory.
In this video a man is sent to jail for 20+ years based on the memory of his daughter who “recovered” her memory under the guidance of a hypnotist. This is an extreme example of the negative aspect of misinformation but the strength and durability of incorrect memories is evident. It can be extremely disconcerting to think that our memory is false. What keeps our memories from becoming misinformed is to keep factual records like a video, audio or just writing it down in a journal. Another thing that we can do is measure the validity of our memory is to compare our memories with someone else…..like a mom, cause they remember EVERYTHING! 🙂
Social Comparison is a tendency that we all have. Social Comparison is evaluating your abilities/opinions through comparing yourself to others. I think that children can be a great example of this. As this picture shows the little boy, who probably was excited to receive his treat of a Popsicle, became dissatisfied by evaluating his treat to the bigger ice cream treat of another.
While this is a simple example, it shows that until the boy compared his delight in his treat with another person did he become dissatisfied. When I was little I wanted to be Pocahontas for Halloween. I was excited when my mom got me an Indian costume. It wasn’t until I saw another girl wearing a real beautiful and expensive Pocahontas dress that I became angry. It through socially comparing myself with her that I became angry with my mom for getting me the ugly and cheap costume.
When hanging out amongst friends many of us share stories with each other. Its a good converstaion starter and sharing funny expieriences with everyone so they can enjoy the moment too is something we often do. But we all have that friend who when he tells the story it is far better than how it actually played out in real life. In chapter 15 the misinformation effect is used to talk about the issue of people changing their stories in court and recently in the sports world their has been an amazing example of this. Misinformation effect is when someone incorporates “misinformation” into ones memory of the event after witnessing an even and received misleading information about it.
Brian Banks is a man who was an up and coming football star in California. However his life got rattled by a rape conviction that got put against him. This case has become an example of the misinformation effect as his girlfriend who pressed the charges and made statemenets in court has retracted her statemenents. Here is a quote from her in the article attached: “Gibson said that they were just playing around, being curious about sexuality, and that the adults got involved and blew it all out of proportion,” according to legal documents. “She said the adults ‘put stuff in [her] head.'” She received misleading information and made statements that changed Brain Banks life.
At this point this story has become a happy one as Brian Banks get the shot at life he always deserved. But his life hit a huge road block and surprising twist when his girlfriend suffered from the misinformation effect. This can happen and there can be some very serious consequence from it. Mis remembering stuff happens all the time to everyone in the world, but stories like Brian Banks show us how dangerous of a thing it can be.
Social Comparison is the act of evaluating your own abilities and opinions by comparing yourself to others. This can have a positive or negative effect on a person, depending on what they do with the information.
“She’s the Man” has a really great scene about social comparison. Enjoy!
This clip from the movie portrays social comparison because the boys Viola is trying to become friends with, compare themselves to her, decide they aren’t good enough, and decide to become friends with her so they can be better with girls. This is social comparison because the boys evaluate their skills based on the skills Viola appears to have.