Archive for category Blog Entry 4
Attitude Inoculation is a practice used to prepare individuals to defend their position or attitude. The process teaches individuals how to respond when their opinion is being threatened, and how to maintain their ground. This is done through exposing them to weak attacks on their beliefs so that when a real, or stronger attack comes, the individual will be prepared.
I remember when I was very young, my parents would sit down with us during Family Night and we would practice defending what we knew was right. We dealt with everything from saying no to someone who asked to cheat, to someone asking us to do drugs. We talked about the importance of these things, and practiced what we could say in those situations. I remember that it was an effective way to teach, and it was effective in practice. In third grade, a classmate asked me if they could copy my homework. Without having to think about it too much, the practiced response came out of my mouth. I was able to stand up for what I believed in, and I attribute that to practicing it before hand.
I was able to say no because of attitude inoculation. My parents recognized the value of practicing our responses to situations before we were ever exposed to them. I was taught from a small age to defend my beliefs, because of the weak attacks my parents practiced with us during family night. This can be applied to more situations than just cheating. I think this is a valuable tool to help kids learn to say no to drugs, and other unsafe situations.
Self perception is a way whereby we can justify our actions determining our behaviors. Through self perception we look at our actions, and then determine why we are doing them to create a better idea about our attitudes. This is especially true when our attitudes are weak or ambiguous. When we are in this situation, it is as if we are examining our own behaviors from the outside. Especially when our actions seem to be free of consequence or outside opinion, we look at our actions to determine our behaviors instead of the other way around.
An example of this can be seen in the TV show LOST, when the characters are faced with the interesting experience of having to input a series of numbers every 108 minutes. Though they do not know the consequence of not doing this, they do it anyways, and after days of this come to believe that the consequence will be bad. Locke even forms strong opinions about it, and has a decided attitude that if the numbers are not put in disaster will strike. He comes to this conclusion not because he believed this before, but because he entered the experience with no moral obligations on the matter, took action, and then used self perception to examine his actions and form an attitude.
The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon is tendency for people to agree to do a large favor or request after first agreeing to a smaller favor of request.
I have seen this happen to myself so many times! I have always been known as a “sucker” or people pleaser. I found that this phenomenon happened on a regular basis when I was dating. One particular example was when I first transferred to BYU I had no desire to date any boy seriously. And especially, I had no interest in dating pre-missionary boys since I was two years older. Because of my job on campus I associated with many freshman boys. They were all very nice but I would occasionally get asked out. When it was a straight forward request to go on a date I was able to maintain my ground and tell them (hopefully gently) that I was not interested in dating at the time. But if they asked a smaller request such as would you want to help me study, I would often agree. Then after agreeing to the small request I would get hit with the larger request of “Would you want to go to a movie/dinner/fill-in-the-blank” and I would often feel obligated to say yes because they already had their Foot-in-the-door. After one date I would tell myself that I would explain to them later that I am not interested in another date..but I would feel bad about the first date and so when they asked again I would often hesitantly say yes so that I was not mean. This ended up getting me into lots of unwanted dates and hurting other freshman’s feelings. But I couldn’t help but feel some pressure or obligation to always agree to the large request if I had already agreed to a smaller one. I wish I would have known this phenomenon so I could have avoided many awkward situations.
When we started talking about classical conditioning today in class I got super excited. Not only because this is something I’ve actually heard of before, but because I knew exactly which clip I would use in this post! Classical conditioning has a few different aspects, styles, and components, but it is mainly the intentional creation of a relationship between two previously unrelated stimuli, or in simpler words, making B happen after A occurs (when B and A usually have no relationship). Most people are familiar with Pavlov’s dogs, where dogs were presented with meat when a bell rang, and eventually the dogs would begin to salivate with the sound of the bell alone (even when meat wasn’t there). Thus, a relationship between the bell and salivation was created, and the dogs were classically conditioned to salivate any time they heard a bell.
The clip is from The Office, and you may have seen it before. Check it out!
In the video, Jim gives Dwight a mint every time his computer restarts and makes the little Windows noise. Eventually, Dwight starts to hold out his hand just from hearing the sound of the computer restarting, without even recognizing he is doing it. Dwight has been classically conditioned to respond to the stimulus of the computer noise by expecting a mint.
Still don’t understand? Watch the clip again. You might not get it the second time, but at least you’ll be laughing.
Persuasion is the use of a message to change someone’s behavior, attitude or beliefs. Persuasion is used commonly in everyday life. This is especially true for anyone dealing with children.
I worked as a nanny for over three years and persuasion had a place in almost every day. One particular experience I remember was at the park. The youngest child, who was two years old at the time, pushed his friend off the swing in anger. When I scolded him he replied, “I want swing, he mean.” The child felt that his friend had been mean to him simply because he did not give him the swing. Now, there were a lot of behavioral issues that needed dealt with in this situation; his aggression, his lack of understanding about sharing and his feelings of entitlement. I decided to focus on only one issue at a time, and in this case I chose his aggression. I explained that it was not good to hurt others, not even in anger. It was difficult getting the point across to a two year old, but I somehow managed. Once he understood that he had hurt the other boy he started to cry, and without any prompting he went and apologized. After that day he never again pushed another child.
This is an example of persuasion because through my message that young child changed his behavior and his belief. He no longer believed that the answer to anger was to push, and, to date, he never pushed another person again.
Behaviors can affect our attitudes in a variety of ways. One well known method is the Foot in the Door Phenomenon, which is the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. For example, when a salesman is able to get into a house for a drink of water, it’s easier to score sales. Because the host has already accepted the first request.
My family used to call me Cinderella. I am not joking. I had three older sisters who took priority in the parenting chain and it often fell to me to do household chores. In fact, one time my sisters were laughing and teasing me about being Cinderella, and then they paused, looked at each other, and said, “Oh my gosh, we’re the evil step sisters.”
I didn’t choose to be Cinderella. I am not really sure if it was even a conscious manipulation on my Mother’s part. But she sure knew how to use the foot in the door technique. She would ask me to dust real quick before going skateboard. So I’d dust–and then she’d ask if I wouldn’t mind vacuuming. And after I finished vacuuming, she’d ask if I would clean the bathroom. Eventually she’d have me clean the entire house. Sometimes she got me to cook dinner too. When I only thought I was going to dust. The house would be sparkling, when I had no intention of making it so originally. But by her slight nudging, getting me to agree to smaller things, she planted an attitude that made me completely accepting about doing the whole house. My initial attitude would have been to feel overworked and that the distribution of chores was unfair. But I agreed because I got trap in her foot in the door technique!
As I was saying, my transformation into complying Cinderella happened rather routinely due to my mother’s wielding of the foot in the door techniques. I wanted to be helpful, but I was also a teenager and wanted to play outside and see my friends. She shifted my slightly helpful attitude into completely willing servant because of her way of placing requests. She started small and then went larger. Eventually getting to comply with a vastly unfair amount of housework. Her impressive wielding of the technique is frightening. Glad to know I am the final child and have no need to protect younger siblings.
Roles are expected behaviors and actions of people within social situations and social settings. There are different roles for every social setting such as the role of a mother, sister, brother within the setting of the home, or the role of a student at college. When you are in these roles certain behaviors are expected of you.
In the documentary 30 Days, people are taken out of their normal lifestyle and put into different roles, which they have to live for 30 days. There are several different episodes portraying different situations and different lifestyles people are put into. The social settings are completely different and they are expected to fill these different roles. Link: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0437696/
The basic idea of roles is portrayed very well within the documentary 30 Days. It shows how roles make up our society and how people try and fit the roles in which they are placed.