Archive for category Blog Entry 8
Stereotypes are when people categorize others to an oversimplified idea. Stereotypes are used towards individuals of a different race/ethnicity, sex/gender, etc. These stereotypes are present in everyday society and can especially be seen within our media.
The White Women’s Workout is a comic commercial based on stereotypes. The White Women’s Workout is based on a black guy chasing a white woman around, which gives her a workout. It is quite humorous, but very obvious of the stereotypes present of different race, specifically black men and white women.
From a young age we have learned to stereotype many different groups. A stereotype is an over-generalized, inaccurate belief about a certain group of people. High school is the perfect example of using stereotypes. Students often assume that all jocks are jerks or that all cheerleaders are stupid. Not only are these wrong, but they can also be very hurtful to the victims of stereotypes. An example of racial and ethnic stereotypes is in the following clip. (start at 6:30)
Though this example is supposed to humorous, it shows some very real and hurtful stereotypes. For example, when Pam tells Dwight (Asian card) that he is a bad driver, Dwight assumes that his card says “Woman”. There are two stereotypes here: all Asians and women are bad drivers. It is also assumed that all Jamaicans like to go to the beach and get high. Dwight also uses the stereotype that all Jews speak Hebrew. None of these facts are true across an entire race. These are all over-generalized and inaccurate beliefs about different groups of people.
This is a very simple phenomenon with serious and complex implications to society. To put is even more simple term, Ethnocentrism is a type of prejudice that puts one ethnicity above all the other ones around. Sadly, throughout history it is common to notice these behaviors, and more recently with the nazis and European general perception on their superiority against black people.
After the entire nazi war accounts, the most despicable account I’ve read and really felt bad about it is found in the “Black like Me”book by John H. Griffin. Perhaps this is because in Brazil, where I grew up, we never had such segregation and humiliation recorded against black people in late history. To really know what kinds of circumstances black people at times lived in, the author decided to take anti-vitiligo oral drugs to darken his skin and to live among black people in southern United States in 1959. The report is astonishing. The bathrooms blacks could use were functional at all, not to say filthy and desease-friendly. Repression was of the charts. They could stand up for their rights cause that would cause everyone to be against them. They weren’t able to sit where they wanted in the bus, they could not speak to white people in some circumstances. Griffin, when given a ride by a white man, was severely humiliated by this man, who downgraded his intelligence just for the fact he was black, although the white man was wrong. These are but a few examples of oppression in those days.
In sum, it didn’t matter who you were or how nice you would act. You are black, therefore you are low, bad and stupid. How people get to that point? Environment, social learning, role models and parenting. Tests were already done to see the difference between black and white people, and off course no differences exist. I’m glad this conflict black and white people has improved significantly. Now the next step is for all of us learn to better distinguish arabs, iraqis and people from those areas and learn to separate between their beliefs, affiliations and nationality. I’m not saying we all think that way, but there are several citizens who openly discriminate the population from these countries without knowing much about them.
Discrimination is the action towards another of a certain group or category. It is not based off the person alone, but the group that someone categorizes them in.
In an article by USA today, weight discrimination is discussed. Weight discrimination especially in women is increasing and is nearly as common as racial discrimination.
“Reported discrimination based on weight has increased 66% in the past decade, up from about 7% to 12% of U.S. adults, says one study, in the journal Obesity. The other study, in the International Journal of Obesity, says such discrimination is common in both institutional and interpersonal situations — and in some cases is even more prevalent than rates of discrimination based on gender and race. (About 17% of men and 9% of women reported race discrimination.)”
Prejudiced, stereotypes and discrimination are preconceived attitudes, negative or positive, about a person or thing based on surface details like their ethnicity, religion or other categories and not on their merit as an individual.
Now, take a gander at this sweet video with its fresh lyrics:
Not only does this video give some street cred to minivans but also it addresses and breaks prejudices on parenting and gender roles. The father says that he “loves hanging with his daughter, sipping tea” keeping his pinky up without being emasculated and his wife not only “straight ownin’ bake sales, with [her] cupcake skills” but also says “I’m better with the money so I handle the bills” Both of these lyrics differ from the stereotypical views on parenting; here it is demonstrated that both parents can nurture the children and also take on different roles based on their own personality and abilities.
Prejudiced and stereotypes are static concepts that can be strengthened or weakened over time. This is how that change occurs: 1)You have a preconceived judgment on “something” , 2) you receive information how that “something” behaves or feel firsthand, and 3) if you find that the “something” conforms to the stereotype then you don’t change your opinion but if the other side doesn’t conform then your opinion will change naturally to accommodate it.
Here is a simplified example of this:
1.How you view people who drive minivans:
SO for a girl, I’m fairly tall. 6’1.5″ to be exact. I abolutely LOVE being tall, I won’t lie. Most of the time I don’t even notice it. I just feel like… me. This characteristic of mine is distinctive, meaning that my height is either the first characteristic that one will notice, or the one that they will remember the most. When my friends describe me, one of the first words used is tall.
Like I said, I love my height. The only downfall is shopping for jeans, but I deal. Reading about the section on “distinctiveness feeds self-consciousness” reminded me of an experience I had. I was on my break at work and talking to someone who was… let’s say vertically challenged. She pointed out how I was “so dang tall.” I didn’t think it affected me, but walking back into the office, someone else told me that I “needed to stop slouching.” I thought to myself “what? I never slouch. I’m a dancer for crying out loud.” Then it hit me. Because someone actually pointed out my disctinctive characteristic that I’m usually unaware of, I became self-conscious and attempted to hide my characteristic by slouching.
Will I ever let my special hieght distinction make me self-conscious again? Probably, but at least now I can correct it as soon as I become consciously aware of it. Be proud of your distinctions, folks.
Ethnocentrism is a kind of prejudice that has to do with one’s ethnicity. (Ethno-centrism. Pretty simple, right?) In believing that your ethnic or cultural group is superior, you also believe that others are below you. The movie Remember the Titans is all about this kind of prejudice and discrimination.
When we are naive enough to believe that our race is superior, our view of the world changes. Suddenly, the KKK and the Third Reich don’t seem so extreme. Why shouldn’t we rule the world if we are genetically better?! It is so important to expose ourselves (and our children) to other cultures and ways of life. When you learn to appreciate, understand, and know people of other cultures, you see them as people. They cease to be a group and you begin to see them as individuals. You see them all as children of our loving Heavenly Father.
Discrimination is when you treat a group or its members negatively for unjust reasons.
Please note that this video may be seen as offensive. It says the A word once, and the GD word once. Plus it makes fun of redheads.
Cartman, and many of his fellow students, display hatred towards redheads. The town doctor even expresses his belief that redheads should be put down because they have gingervitus. This hatred does not have a just cause but is rather based on the belief that redheads have no souls. This is clearly an example of discrimination. The redheads in South Park are treated badly only because of false beliefs the students and town members hold.
Prejudice is at the heart of a lot of negative attitudes towards certain groups. These groups can be based on separating factors such as race, sexual orientation, or gender. Sexism is type of prejudice where negative attitudes and actions are aimed towards people of a given sex.
Almost everyone has experienced some form of sexism. An experience where people’s actions/attitudes towards you were more based on your sex than any personal quality you had. Unfortunately, the majority of my bad experiences with sexism was actually in the LDS church. It started in Young Women’s. The Young Men’s group would be provided with activities like paint balling and hikes. We had quilting and cleaning the church. It was demeaning and frustrating that our fun activities were ‘home maker’ preparations. When I got to BYU, I had experiences with home teachers and bishops saying that my goals for graduate studies were a ‘good backup’, in case anything happened to my husband. And when I was dealing with extremely serious health issues, some guys thought I must just be ‘cranky from my period’. And when I tried to find boys to play hockey with me or go mountain biking, the attributed my interest to romantic inclinations, because it ‘wasn’t normal’ for a girl to just be into those things.
Although these examples form more of a net of examples than a single instance, they well illustrate sexism today. I do not have too many glaring memories of outright, hostile sexism. It’s more tiny things that add up and up until they are unbearably demeaning. Many encounters with sexism can be benevolent–unintended and thought to be ‘good natured’. But this attitude still forms a basis for negative behaviors towards my sex. My individual qualities are often ignored in favor or an idea of ‘what a woman should be’. These negative attitudes and discrimination are what add up into sexism.
Sexism: stereotyping, discriminating, or being prejudice against the opposite sex, in most cases being women. Over time, sexism is something that has become increasingly better. In the old days women were not allowed to speak their mind, have careers, or in some cases leave their home. Today however women have much more opportunity. They can go to college and get a career, own their own company, run for president, etc. Although women have been able to do more sexism still exists. I have often heard, “Your probably a bad driver because your a girl,” or “That must be easier for you because your a girl, you can get whatever you want.” This is a form of sexism. Women work just as hard as men, if not on occasion more. An example of sexism that I found was the clip from, She’s The Man, where Amanda Bynes pretends to be a boy just to continue her love for soccer because the boys won’t let her play on their team.
In conclusion, sexism still exists today not only towards women. There are times when boys have been stereotyped as well with things like being emotionless, or not being able to care about others and have feelings. The text says, “Sexism is an institutional practice that discriminates, even if there is no prejudicial intent.” This means that sometimes even when we think we aren’t being sexist we may actually be offending someone. Both genders struggle with being sexist and its something that will probably always exist.
Racism is an attitude of prejudice or discrimination towards an individual of a different race. Racism pervades all aspects of life, including written fiction.
An example of this is found in the book Elvenbane, by Andre Norton and Mercedes Lackey. In this novel, the elves display strong prejudice against the humans. The elves are the only ones allowed to own property, the only ones with rights and the only ones with freedom. The humans are the slaves of the elves. They are never allowed any rights; they are treated as animals and kept subordinate. Any child born of an elf and human coupling is seen as an abomination and killed immediately after birth.
This is an example of racism because the attitude the elves have for the humans is one of prejudice and discrimination.
Stereotype – Beliefs or ideas about the personal attributes of a group of people.
Living in Utah, sometimes it is hard to find someone that does not already know about the LDS church. Most of the people living here know what stereotypes or rumors are true and which ones are not.
I work at a drug and alcohol recovery center that mostly caters to patients from out of state. Most of the time the first thing a patient will ask me is, “Are you a Mormon?” While working there I have been asked almost everything from A-Z concerning mormon stereotypes. Having been on a mission, I have been well prepared in how to respond.
Some of the things people ask me I feel like they already know the answer to but want to see my reaction anyway. These stereotypes are the ones that really bother me. I am fine answering honest questions but when the stereotype is discussed just to see the reaction of a member of the group the stereotype is about, I get a little frustrated.
One patient asked me how many moms I had. One asked me why I don’t believe in the bible. These of course are stereotypes that people, who are not educated or just heard something wrong, have about Mormons
The thing about stereotypes is that most of the time they are not true for everyone in the group. This can offend people if we are quick to make judgements just based on how we classify them to a specific group.
A stereotype is defined as any preconceived ideas about a group of people. These ideas are usually inaccurate and overgeneralized. Stereotypes are enduring ideas that are hard to change.
My best friend in high school had many stereotypes about Mormons, particularly Utah Mormons. When she joined the church, I tried to convince her to apply to BYU. She didn’t want to come here because of the stereotypes she associated with Utah Mormons. She thought that they tended to be stuck up and self-righteous. She thought that everyone here was mormon because it was a culture, and that no one was truly converted themselves. She stayed in California for school but came up to visit me here several times. She soon realized that several of her stereotypes were wrong. She still won’t admit it to some degree, but the way that she talks about Utah Mormons has definitely changed.
My friend’s stereotype of Utah Mormons was based on her preconceived notions. She had never actually been around Utah Mormons, but based her ideas on what she had heard from others. Her ideas were overgeneralized, not all Utah Mormons fit her description. On top of that, they were basically inaccurate. Even when she was shown evidence that proved her ideas false, she still had a hard time admitting it and letting go of her stereotypes.
Prejudice: A previous negative thought or view of a specific group or individual in such a group.
Mr. Darcy is prejudice towards Elizabeth and her family (due to their social class). He had a negative view of the social class in which they belonged (a specific group). This is shown through Mr. Darcy’s vocal opinions. He even says, “Any alliance must be regarded as a highly reprehensible connection… Do you expect me to Rejoice in the inferiority of your connections? To congratulate myself on the hope of relations whose condition in life is so decidedly below my own?” Clearly, he views the social class of the Bennett’s, even the individual of Elizabeth, as lower than his own, and his prejudice is strong.
Realistic Conflict Theory: This theory is one way to help explain why prejudice arises. It states that hostility arises between groups as a result of conflicting goals and competition over limited resources. Feelings of resentment arise because groups see the competition over resources as having only one winner- that is to say- only one group wins.
My high school, Ladue had as it’s rival, Clayton High School. Starting in elementary school, it was ingrained into our brains that Clayton was worse than Ladue. We competed with Clayton in everything from sports to academics.
The competition to be number one caused Ladue and Clayton to butt heads. We knew that there could only be one number one- and both of the schools fought for that spot. This competition grew into hostility and even prejudice- as we viewed our school as better than Clayton. Looking back- it seems silly how much we put into “playing the game of prejudice”- but it seems like it is almost part of being human. We like to be on the winning side!! The realistic conflict theory helps to explain this ever present rivalry between Ladue and Clayton.
Discrimination is defined as the negative, undeserving acts towards a specific group or its individuals.
Throughout the movie, Miss Trunchbull subjects the children at her school to various punishments that are completely unjustified. In this clip, she claimed that the child who owned the ribbon she was holding would “never see the light of day.” In other clips, she puts children who are late to school in the “chokie”: a dark, scary, dirty room with nails coming out of the walls. At the beginning of the movie, she throws a girl across the courtyard for wearing pigtails. Obviously, none of this behavior is justified, and Miss Trunchbull targets children. She even said, “I hate kids. Glad I never was one.”
The term prejudice could be defined as a negative attitude aimed towards a certain group and its members. Oftentimes prejudice is used to describe one’s attitude towards those of a different race or gender, but in this clip taken from the TV show Scrubs they show a different type of prejudice.
This clip illustrates a prejudice that exists between surgeons and doctors because they appear to believe in an “us vs. them” attitude. Instead of Turk supporting JD’s opinion, Turk (the surgeon) convinced the patient to let him do the surgery. That promoted a negative attitude from JD about surgeons, although he does not act on his attitude. If he would have, this clip would be illustrating discrimination. Instead, the doctors near the end of the clip race wheelchairs against the surgeons, showing that a negative attitude still exists against the two, but not enacting negative behavior towards each other.
“Marilyn vs. Jackie” by Tatiana Herman
Stereotypes are the beliefs we hold about the attributes of other people in a particular group. They can either be negative or positive, but always have the potential of hurting someone’s feelings or offending them. They also have the tendency to be overgeneralized, and at times be completely wrong.
Watch following clip until 2:50
This clip illustrates that Warner has a strong stereotypical view of his girlfriend, Elle. He sees her as a fun, pretty blonde that will be a silly distraction to him in law school and hold him back from a serious career in politics. As he is breaking up with her he explains that if he is going to be a senator by the time he’s 30, then he needs to marry a “Jackie” (referring to Jackie Kennedy) and not a “Marilyn” (referring to Marilyn Monroe). The movie itself sets up the viewer to see Elle in this light as well. It’s easy to stereotype Elle as a silly, dumb blonde with not a care in the world- as she is clearly “Queen Bee” in her sorority and has daddy’s plastic to support her luxurious lifestyle. However, later in the movie she makes it clear that she is smart, full of integrity, caring, and works hard for what she wants. None of these characteristics are represented in the blonde stereotype.
While the times certainly have changed, the attitudes of individuals within our society has not. There are so many people that still practice racism, or the act of discriminatory attitudes and behavior towards people of a given race. Racism can lead to exclusion, maltreatment, and all around unfairness towards people based on their skin color alone, which is something you cannot hold another person accountable for! After all, did you choose what color of skin you were born with?
The following clip is a little silly, but gets the point across – it’s from a great movie musical, Hairspray.
As you can see, these kids are the “nicest kids in town”, and they are all white. While that may not be racism, it is certainly discrimination. Later on in the clip (around 2:10), you hear “Nice white kids who like to lead the way, and once a month we have our Negro day!”. This, my friends, is where the racism comes into play. They are blatantly advertising that the white kids are somehow nicer or better, and the only ones worthy of being called the nicest kids in town. Then, they share that once a MONTH they have a day for African Americans? Simply unfair! Granted, this film is set in the 1960’s, which explains how these attitudes could have been culturally acceptable.
These days, racism has no excuse. Get over it!
Realistic Group Conflict Theory is a theory which suggests that prejudices can, in many cases, arise out of competition between groups or individuals for scarcely available resources. So, for example, an unemployed caucasian construction worker may develop a prejudice against hispanic construction workers, when he sees that they are employed. In this hypothetical example, the scarce resource is employment, and because our subject was in competition with others to obtain that resource (and he lost), he developed a prejudice against the winning group.
A less racially charged example happened to my older brother on his mission. He and his companion had finally committed an investigator to baptism, and it was time to decide who was going to do the actual baptizing. My brother’s companion put his hands on my brother’s upper arm and squeezed, making a joke about how my brother might not be able to manage it (the woman may have been a little overweight). But the joke stuck, and the companion ended up baptizing her. That, among other more important reasons, made my brother dislike his companion.
So let’s see the theory applied: even though it’s ridiculous to admit it, there is a competitive feeling in a missionary companionship when it’s time to baptize someone. Baptisms are a missionary’ trophy. So, when there’s only one person to be baptized, as in this case, there’s some competition over that scarce ‘resource’, or experience of baptizing. The outcome of this particular competition didn’t work in my brother’s favor, and as a result he disliked, or had a prejudice against, his companion. By the way, my brother hasn’t even mentioned the story except the one time that he told it, right after his mission—he’s probably let it go, but as you can see, prejudices have sticking power.
The just-world phenomenon is the tendency people have to blame the victim. We believe that the world is just, so when something bad happens to someone, we tend to believe it was somehow their fault. People get what they deserve.
I had an experience just the other day with this. There is a super accident prone girl from my home ward and she posted a picture of her latest accident. I have no idea what happened to her, but she’ll be in a boot for the next two months and be on crutches. She posted a picture of her foot and how bad it looks on facebook, and without even thinking about it, I thought to myself, well she was probably doing something dumb that got her into trouble. She was probably just being her clumsy self and that’s why she was injured.
Good thing I had just read my textbook and recognized this automatic tendency I had. I had no idea what happened to this girl, but I automatically thought that somehow it was because of something she had done, somehow it was her fault. It very well might not have been her fault, but I was very confident in my assumption. This illustrates the just-world phenomenon that allows people to think that the world is just. This phenomenon allows us to protect ourselves. We console ourselves and think that if we don’t do those things that cause accidents, we will be safe. It was an instant and automatic response for me and I’m sure it happens all of the time. It’s something that I need to be aware of so that I don’t place blame on the victim for being hurt because that isn’t always the case.
Racism is when someone has negative thoughts, discriminates against, and acts differently towards a particular race.
As this clip demonstrates, Michael Scott is behaving in a racist manner as he is expressing negative stereotypes about Indians. Even if he meant it to be done in a joking manner, he still displayed discriminatory behavior towards Kelly because of her race, thus demonstrating racism.
The focus of this blog is on stereotypes, specifically racial stereotypes. A stereotype can be defined as a specific label given to an individual or group of individuals based on their membership in a particular group. “Asians are good at math” and “blondes are stupid” are a few typical examples of this.
My example for this concept comes from the show Seinfeld. To give a little stage work to this clip, George (one of the main characters) has his phone line crossed with a woman whose name is Donna Chang, and thus when people try to call George, they get ahold of Donna Chang instead, and assume that she is Chinese because of her name. At one point in the episode, George’s mother Estelle tries to call him and instead gets Donna, and ends up talking to her for an hour, during which conversation she tells Donna that she and George’s father are getting a divorce. Donna Chang gives Estelle advice, which persuades Estelle to change her mind and not divorce. Thirty seconds into the below clip is the scene where Estelle meets Donna Chang in person for the first time:
This clip is a great example of racial stereotyping in that the persuasive power of Donna Chang could all be attributed to her being perceived as a Chinese woman. When Estelle finds out that she’s not, this discovery “changes everything!” The advice given to Estelle, though unchanged, then has no impact in light of Donna being just a regular woman from Long Island. The stereotype is clear in this case: that Chinese people seem to possess superior wisdom to Caucasians, and are to be taken more seriously in deep and important matters such as how to conduct one’s life.
Many say its an issue of the past and in many areas our society has come a long ways in issues or Racism. Racism is an individuals prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race. Racism is a is a type of discrimination which is unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its memebrs. Many have moved past thsee issues but also many have not.
A good example of Racism is shown in the movie “Remember the Titans.” Remember the Titans is set in the 1970’s and so it would be more prevelent in this time period and this move shows great examples. This link is a piece of the movie when some locals throw a brick through Coach Boone windown while yelling some rude things. It is an attack against him because of his skin color and is shocking to the assistant coaches white daughter who is over at their house.
Our society has come along way in dealing with Racism. But it is an area we can always improve. As the movie clip from Remember the Titans shows some people take Racism to the extreme and do things out of line. While many dont do anything out of line and are mature enough to handle the situations. In the end its an opportunity to show love for our fellow man by treating everyone equal and avoid Racism.
Prejudice is a person’s preconceived negative judgments about a certain person or group. Automatic prejudice are our unconscious and automatic first thoughts and negative impressions towards a group. These impressions may be a result of past negative experience, social stereotypes, a misunderstanding of cultural differences, etc. A powerful example of automatic prejudice can be found in the film “My Name is Khan”. The full film is on Netflix, but here is the trailer:
The story is of Khan, an autistic Muslim man living in America. The specific part of the movie I wanted to show is when Khan’s son is killed in a hate crime. The events of September 11 were fresh in everyone’s minds, and Muslims everywhere were being attacked. The actions of a few were automatically attributed to all Muslim Americans, though they had had nothing to do with the terrorist attacks. Following his son’s death, Khan’s wife Mandira accused Khan of being responsible for their son’s death, all because of his name. When people saw Khan and his family, all they could think was that they had taken part in this national tragedy, and all because of their family name. And unfortunately, this automatic prejudice ended in great tragedy for Khan and Mandira.
As human beings, we form judgments about others on a regular basis. By judging others, we tend to categorize them, and inevitably categorize ourselves. When we categorize ourselves into our group, we most likely favor our group. When doing so, we exhibit ingroup bias. Ingroup bias is displayed when one makes favorably comments or judgments regarding the group one belongs to, when making unfavorably comments or judgments regarding the outgroup, a group one does not belong with.
My mother is a consistent example of displaying ingroup bias. Recently, my home town had mayor and city council elections. My mom, being the involved town member she is, became a campaigner for a select group of candidates who teamed up together. My mom thus considered herself a part of what became known as the NFL group. When NFL lost the vote, my mom designed well articulated excuses for them, explaining that NFL simply did not want to invest as much money into the campaign, which would have been a burden to voters. She also made statements reflecting how much good NFL could have done with a second term in office, while the newly elected candidates will not know how to get things started.
My mom exemplified ingroup bias when she favored her own group during and even after the election. She campaigned for them and defended them upon their defeat. She did not switch groups when she realized NFL would lose, but instead she began making excuses for them that would highlight the group favorably in the public eye.
Favoritism is giving preferential treatment to a person or group over another (different) person or group. Most families tease each other (or at least mine does) about how one child is the favorite child. I personally have always suffered from using favoritism and didn’t know how potentially destructive it was until I read the chapter in the book.
I will attempt to illustrate how much of a favoritist I am. Not only do I have normal favorite things, such as a color or book, I also have a favorite utensil (spoon), a favorite word (superfluous) and favorite way to put on shoes (left sock and shoe first). However, these examples don’t fit in with the definition. I also have a favorite Uncle. Whenever I can see him, I spend time with him almost exclusively. The last time I saw my uncle was four years ago at a funeral. The entire week, if you were looking for me, you’d find me with him. This probably made my dad and other members of my extended family, who I hadn’t seen in a long time, pretty sad.
The above example is illustrative of favoritism because I gave preferential treatment to my Uncle by spending a lot of time with just him instead of my other family members. And if we’re going to stretch the definition, I also give preferential treatment to the spoons I own and my left foot.
I’m gonna be talking about Ambivalent sexism, which is half benevolent, half hostile. Benevolent sexism is the idealization of traditional roles, while hostile sexism is demonizing the sexes when they move away from these roles.
Here’s a good example.
The video first shows men’s hostility to the woman when she assumes a more masculine role (i.e., understanding economics). In the second example, when she acts in a stereotypical feminine way, they overwhelmingly approve. Supporting her only when she acts in the way they expect is how benevolent sexism works.
Ingroup bias is the tendency to support and accredit good qualities to a persons own group.
One of the most obvious examples that I thought of was from West Side Story. In this classic musical, there are two groups; The Jets and the Sharks. The Jets are American while the Sharks are Puerto Rican. These groups have many negative beliefs or stereotypes about the other group or outgroup. In one of the opening scenes the Jets sing a song displaying their ingroup bias.
In this song The Jets sing about how great they are. They sing about the good qualities that they have like how they are the “gold medal kids” and how they always “walk tall”. They also sing about The Sharks or Puerto Ricans are “lousy chickens”. They favor their own group and disfavor the outgroup. They even go as far as to say that they are going to hang a sign that visitors are forbidden. This is because the visitors are not part of their group so others are not welcome. It is easy to see the “us” verse “them” theme in this song. But this video is an example of ingroup bias because the Jets sing about all of their good qualities they their group possesses.
During WWII, prejudices ran wild. Though the most apparent and horrific of these was the ethnocentric attitude of the Third Reich which lead to the slaughter of millions, it is notable to mention that America played its role in dehumanizing the Germans. This scene is from Band of Brothers, and depicts a U.S. Army private reading a newspaper which informs him, in short, that the Germans are ‘bad’.
This is an excellent example of prejudice being enforced through institutions. Though the average American was probably not racist towards Germans, the media was overloaded with anti-German messages. Thus those soldiers fighting against the Germans developed strong prejudices towards them, though they had most likely never met any of them personally. This strong stereotype changed their attitudes, which also led to different decisions on the battlefield than they might have exhibited if they had no such prejudice towards the Germans, and instead knew them on a personal and individual level.
Racism is the prejudicial attitude or discriminatory behavior toward a person or group of a given race. Throughout the past half century, racial sentiments have significantly reduced in the United States and in other countries around the world. For example, in 1942, most Americans agreed that there should be separate sections for blacks and whites on the streetcars and buses. Today, no longer do we see “black” or “white” buses, but merely “city” buses; and in 1980, only 10 percent of Americans agreed that schools should be segregated (as opposed 98 percent in 1942).
An example of racism that quickly came to mind when studying chapter 9 of Social Psychology (Myers) was of a white and black engaged couple portrayed in the movie Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967). In the film, Joey Drayton (Katharine Houghton) is a young, white girl that returns to her parents’ home with John Prentice (Sidney Poitier), a black man whom she plans to marry. Upon learning of her intentions, Joey’s parents lay awestruck and very unsure on how to react. Throughout the film, Mr. and Mrs. Drayton eventually learn to come to terms with their daughter’s decision, and even arrive at the point of defending the marriage before those who would openly criticize it. Once past Mr. Prentice’s race, Joey’s parents even come to fully embrace his high academic and professional credentials as a world-renowned doctor. The film demonstrates racism in the sense that Joey’s parents were extremely skeptical of her daughter’s marriage merely because of the fact that her fiancee was a black man.
Racism refers to the preconceived (negative) notions that people have of a given race and its members. Although not as prevalent in today’s society, racist feelings or attitudes continue to exist. To entertain negative or hostile sentiments towards another person based on nothing else but his or her race is a malicious naiveté, probably demonstrates a lack of education and practical experience, and is downright inconsiderate. Perhaps to some extent we could all use a dose of rational thinking and open-mindedness similar to that which Mr. Dayton portrayed when faced with the decision to accept or reject a person’s character based on his race.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Yt0wxoFl4o 0:00-7:10 Watch it all – every second of him speaking will be worth your time and consideration. (Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner)